Editorial Overview

Innovative technologies in flower breeding

Tomoko Abe, Norihiro Ohtsubo. . . . . . . 1 [PDF]

GMOs and their environmental biosafety assessment

Importance of genetic transformation in ornamental plant breeding

Michio Shibata. . . . . . . 3 [PDF]

New varieties of ornamental plants have been produced by cross-hybridization and mutation breeding techniques. Genetic transformation produces an “additive” one-point improvement, whereas mutation breeding produces a “subtractive” one-point improvement.

Recent progress on environmental biosafety assessment of genetically modified trees and floricultural plants in Japan

Akira Kikuchi, Kazuo Watanabe, Yoshikazu Tanaka and Hiroshi Kamada. . . . . . . 9 [PDF]

In this review, we examine the environmental biosafety assessment of LMO floricultural plants and trees enumerating the example of field trials in Japan, and describe concepts that should be noted for the commercial cultivation and environmental release of these species.

Environmental risk assessment of genetically modified chrysanthemums containing a modified cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis

Harue Shinoyama, Atsushi Mochizuki, Yukio Nomura ,Hiroshi Kamada. . . . . . . 17 [PDF]

The environmental risk assessment of insect-resistant GM chrysanthemums was undertaken and the results showed the expression of the mcbt gene did not cause significant differences in the morphological characteristics, the production of allelopathic substances, or the effect on soil microorganisms compared to non-GM chrysanthemums.

Improvement of flower traits by CRES-T and supporting technologies

The utility of transcription factors for manipulation of floral traits

Masahito Shikata and Masaru Ohme-Takagi. . . . . . . 31 [PDF]

In this review we describe the utility of transcription factors and a novel gene-silencing technology, the CRES-T system, to effectively manipulate floral traits.

FioreDB: a database of phenotypic information induced by the chimeric repressor silencing technology (CRES-T) in Arabidopsis and floricultural plants

Nobutaka Mitsuda, Yoshimi Umemura, Miho Ikeda, Masahito Shikata, Tomotsugu Koyama, Kyoko Matsui, Takako Narumi, Ryutaro Aida, Katsutomo Sasaki, Tomomi Hiyama, Youhei Higuchi, Michiyuki Ono, Kanji Isuzugawa, Kumi Saito, Reiko Endo, Kazuo Ikeda, Takashi Nakatsuka, Masahiro Nishihara, Saburo Yamamura, Tomomichi Yamamura, Teruhiko Terakawa, Norihiro Ohtsubo and Masaru Ohme-Takagi. . . . . . . 37 [PDF]

The ‘FioreDB’ database that stores phenotypic information induced by various chimeric repressors in Arabidopsis and six floricultural plants was developed in a web-based interface (

Chimeric AGAMOUS repressor induces serrated petal phenotype in Torenia fournieri similar to that induced by cytokinin application

Takako Narumi, Ryutaro Aida, Tomoya Niki, Takaaki Nishijima, Nobutaka Mitsuda, Keiichiro Hiratsu, Masaru Ohme-Takagi, Norihiro Ohtsubo. . . . . . . 45 [PDF]

Transgenic torenia plants expressing chimeric AGAMOUS repressor showed no double flower, although they exhibited anthocyanin accumulation in stigma surface and serration in petal margin as cytokinin-treated torenia. These phenotypes might be caused by the modification of cytokinin-dependent regulation in vascular bundle formation and the ectopic expression of the chimeric repressors in all whorls by the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter.

Chrysanthemum flower shape modification by suppression of chrysanthemum- AGAMOUS gene

Ryutaro Aida, Masayasu Komano, Minoru Saito, Kansuke Nakase, Koji Murai. . . . . . . 55 [PDF]

The flower shape of chrysanthemum ( Chrysanthemum morifolium ) was modified by suppressing the chrysanthemum- AGAMOUS ( CAG ) gene, which might be a C gene, with an antisense transgene. We demonstrate that suppression of the CAG gene converted the stamen and pistil into corolla-like tissues.

Flower color modification of gentian plants by RNAi-mediated gene silencing

Takashi Nakatsuka, Kei-ichiro Mishiba, Yoshiko Abe, Akiko Kubota, Yuko Kakizaki, Saburo Yamamura, Masahiro Nishihara. . . . . . . 61 [PDF]

Here we report successful adaptation of RNA interference (RNAi) technology to modify flower colors in gentian, targeted for suppression of three anthocyanin biosynthetic genes; chalcone synthase ( CHS ), anthocyanidin synthase ( ANS ) and flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase ( F3’5’H ). Transgenic gentian plants produced in this study might be utilized as elite materials in the breeding of gentian plants in the near future.

Improved translation efficiency in chrysanthemum and torenia with a translational enhancer derived from the tobacco alcohol dehydrogenase gene

Ryutaro Aida, Takako Narumi, Norihiro Ohtsubo, Hiroyasu Yamaguchi, Ko Kato, Atsuhiko Shinmyo, Michio Shibata. . . . . . . 69 [PDF]

We investigated the efficiency of the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of the tobacco alcohol dehydrogenase gene ( NtADH -5’UTR) as a translational enhancer in chrysanthemum ( Chrysanthemum morifolium ) and torenia ( Torenia fournieri ). The NtADH -5’UTR enhances the translational efficiency of transgenes in both chrysanthemum and torenia.

Improvement of Regeneration and Transformation Systems for Cyclamen persicum using Somatic Embryo Culture

Terakawa Teruhiko, Tomomichi Yamamura and Toshio Murayama. . . . . . . 77 [PDF]

We developed an efficient method for plant regeneration via somatic embryos in Cyclamen using a regeneration medium containing 0.1 mg l-1 BAP, 0.01 mg l-1 NAA, and 0.2 mg l-1 gibberellin and Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation using somatic embryos as the source of plant material.

New technology to create novel flowers using heavy-ion beam irradiation

High-efficiency improvement of transgenic torenia flowers by ion beam irradiation

Katsutomo Sasaki, Ryutaro Aida, Tomoya Niki, Hiroyasu Yamaguchi, Takako Narumi, Takaaki Nishijima, Yoriko Hayashi, Hiromichi Ryuto, Nobuhisa Fukunishi, Tomoko Abe and Norihiro Ohtsubo. . . . . . . 81 [PDF]

To optimize the risk-cost/benefit ratio of transgenic ornamental plants for commercialization, we applied heavy-ion beam irradiation to transgenic torenia (Torenia fournieri Lind.) plants with modified petal colors. Over 10% of irradiated plants showed altered phenotypes in flowers, and mutation spectrums in petal color in transformant-based mutants were wider than those in wild-type plants.

Heavy-ion beam-induced sterile mutants of verbena ( Verbena x hybrida ) with an improved flowering habit

Takeshi Kanaya, Hiroyuki Saito, Yoriko Hayashi, Nobuhisa Fukunishi, Hiromichi Ryuto, Kiyoshi Miyazaki, Takaaki Kusumi, Tomoko Abe, Ken-ichi Suzuki. . . . . . . 91 [PDF]

We isolated sterile mutants of Verbena x hybrida from fertile cultivars ‘Temari Sakura’ and ‘Temari Coral Pink’ irradiated with heavy-ion beams. The characterization of sterile mutants of ‘Temari Sakura’ and ‘Temari Coral Pink’ were indicated that they have different sterile phenotypes.

A heavy-ion beam-induced mutant of Verbena x hybrida and wild species of V. peruviana show different self-incompatibility phenotypes

Takeshi Kanaya, Hiroyuki Saito, Yoriko Hayashi, Nobuhisa Fukunishi, Hiromichi Ryuto, Kiyoshi Miyazaki, Abe Tomoko, Ken-ichi Suzuki. . . . . . . 97 [PDF]

The behavior of pollen tubes and seed productivity after self-pollination were comparatively investigated in a self-incompatible mutant of Verbena x hybrida and wild species Verbena peruviana. These observations indicated they have different SI systems. A set of them have potential to be a novel model plants for genetic analysis of the SI mechanism in the Verbenaceae family.

Biological effects of heavy-ion beam irradiation on cyclamen

Masao Sugiyama, Hiroyuki Saito, Hiroyuki Ichida, Yoriko Hayashi, Hiromichi Ryuto, Nobuhisa Fukunishi, Teruhiko Terakawa, and Tomoko Abe. . . . . . . 101 [PDF]

The biological effects of heavy-ion beam irradiation on cultured tissues of cyclamen were investigated. Irradiation of tubers produced male sterility, change in petal colour, and petal form. Mutation induction by heavy-ion beam irradiation to the tuber is useful for changing flower characteristics of cyclamen.

Effect of heavy ion-beam irradiation on plant growth and mutation induction in Nicotiana tabacum

Yusuke Kazama, Hiroyuki Saito, Mashu Miyagai, Hinako Takehisa, Hiroyuki Ichida,Yutaka Miyazawa, Kei-ichiro Mishiba, Takeshi Kanaya, Kenichi Suzuki, Chang-Hyu Bae,Kazumitsu Miyoshi, Masahiro Mii, and Tomoko Abe. . . . . . . 105 [PDF]

Tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L.) tissues at various developmental stages were irradiated with heavy-ion beams of various doses, and the effects of irradiation were examined by monitoring plant growth and mutation induction. We isolated a novel white flower mutant, BWF1 , in which the synthesis of proanthocyanidin was up-regulated.

LET-dependent effects of heavy-ion beam irradiation in Arabidopsis thaliana

Yusuke Kazama, Hiroyuki Saito, Yoshiharu Y. Yamamoto, Yoriko Hayashi, Hiroyuki Ichida1, Hiromichi Ryuto, Nobuhisa Fukunishi, and Tomoko Abe. . . . . . . 113 [PDF]

We irradiated Arabidopsis thaliana with several kinds of heavy-ion beams to investigate the linear energy transfer (LET)-dependent effects. Regardless of ion species, irradiation with the same LET value resulted in the same flowering rate and mutation rate. Thus, the LET seems to be an important factor affecting mutagenesis.

Heavy-ion beam irradiation facility for biological samples in RIKEN

Hiromichi Ryuto, Nobuhisa Fukunishi, Yoriko Hayashi, Hiroyuki Ichida, Tomoko Abe, Masayuki Kase, Yasushige Yano. . . . . . . 119 [PDF]

Biological samples are irradiated with heavy-ion beams at RI beam factory in RIKEN to perform mutation breeding. A uniform dose distribution is a key to a systematic study of the effect of the heavy-ion beams, and thus to the improvement of mutation efficiency. The linear energy transfers (LETs) of the heavy-ion beams are selected using a range shifter and an energy adjuster to investigate the LET dependence of the irradiation effect.