Invited Review

Plant expressed sequence tags databases: practical uses and the improvement of their searches using network module analysis

Yoshiyuki Ogata, Hideyuki Suzuki. . . . . . . 351 [PDF] [Supplement]

A variety of plant ESTs have been sequenced. ESTs are useful for functional analyses of genes and as biomarkers. Here, we discuss the uses of the currently available plant EST datasets. We also demonstrate the use of network module analysis to provide more information on molecular functions of plant ESTs and proteins.

Original Papers

A novel autofluorescence-based selection of calli amenable to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in onion

Yasuhiro Kamata, Noriya Masamura, Akiko Miyazaki, Toshiyuki Nagata. . . . . . . 361 [PDF]

Onion calli amenable to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation were selected by observing levels of yellowish autofluorescence under a fluorescence microscope. The frequency of transient GFP expression dramatically increased when these calli without or with low levels of yellowish autofluorescence were infected with Agrobacterium. Using these amenable calli, we obtained and characterized non-lachrymatory onions in which the lachrymatory factor synthase gene was silenced by RNAi.

Glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase from golden pothos (Epipremnum aureum) and the production of formaldehyde detoxifying plants

Yuichi Tada, Yusuke Kidu. . . . . . . 373 [PDF]

FALDH cDNA was cloned from golden pothos, and the FALDH enzyme activity was compared with those from Arabidopsis and rice in transgenic Arabidopsis. The FALDH from golden pothos is similarly or more effective for detoxifying formaldehyde in transgenic plants compared with Arabidopsis and rice.

Metabolomic characterization of the possible involvement of a Cytochrome P450, CYP81F4, in the biosynthesis of indolic glucosinolate in Arabidopsis

Kosuke Kai, Hiroki Takahashi, Hirohisa Saga, Takumi Ogawa, Shigehiko Kanaya, Daisaku Ohta. . . . . . . 379 [PDF] [Supplement1] [Supplement2]

We report the first experimental evidence for the involvement of a cytochrome P450 CYP81F4 in glucosinolate biosynthesis. Metabolome analyses and a pathway prediction using a van Krevelen diagram demonstrated that CYP81F4, together with an unidentified methyltransferase, is involved in the formation of the methoxy group in the indole ring to yield 1-methoxy-indole-3-yl-methyl glucosinolate in Arabidopsis roots.

Cultivation under salt stress increases the concentration of recombinant miraculin in transgenic tomato fruit, resulting in an increase in purification efficiency

Tadayoshi Hirai, Narendra Duhita, Kyoko Hiwasa-Tanase, Hiroshi Ezura. . . . . . . 387 [PDF]

High target protein concentrations in source materials are important for achieving high purification efficiency. Transgenic tomato increased miraculin concentration due to an enrichment effect caused by the miniaturization of tomatoes cultivated under salt stress. When the miraculin-enriched tomatoes were used for miraculin purification, the recovery rate of miraculin was higher.

Transgenic Note

Resistance against beet armyworms and cotton aphids in caffeine-producing transgenic chrysanthemum

Yun-Soo Kim, Soon Lim, Kwon-Kyoo Kang, Yu-Jin Jung, Young-Hye Lee, Yong-Eui Choi, Hiroshi Sano. . . . . . . 393 [PDF]

Transgenic chrysanthemum plants were constructed to simultaneously express three N-methyltransferases involved in caffeine biosynthetic pathways. Resulting plants produced caffeine at approximately 3 µg g-1 fresh tissue and was resistant against herbivores, lepidoptera caterpillars and aphids.


Effects of wavelength of LED-light on in vitro asymbiotic germination and seedling growth of Bletilla ochracea Schltr. (Orchidaceae)

Toshinari Godo, Kazuhiro Fujiwara, Kaiyun Guan, Kazumitsu Miyoshi. . . . . . . 397 [PDF]

The effects of different light wavelengths on in vitro asymbiotic germination of seeds and seedling development of Bletilla ochracea were examined using five wavelengths from light emitting diodes. Different reactions, in respect to seed germination, seedling growth, morphology of leaf and pseudobulb, and rooting were observed among different wavelengths of illumination.

Technical Note

Cryopreservation of in vitro-grown shoot tips of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) by vitrification method using aluminium cryo-plates

Kentaro Sekizawa, Shin-ichi Yamamoto, Tariq Rafique, Kuniaki Fukui, Takao Niino. . . . . . . 401 [PDF]

Vitrification method using an aluminum cryo-plate was successfully applied to in vitro-grown carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) shoot tips. The average regrowth level of vitrified shoot tips of 4 carnation cultivars reached 95%. This new method has many advantages and will facilitate the cryostorage.

Gene Note

Spatio-temporal expression analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana spermine synthase gene promoter

G. H. M. Sagor, Koji Yamaguchi, Kanako Watanabe, Thomas Berberich, Tomonobu Kusano, Yoshihiro Takahashi. . . . . . . 407 [PDF] [Supplement]

Of the polyamines, plants contain at least two kinds of tetraamines, spermine (Spm) and thermospermine (T-Spm). Here we examined the localization of Spm synthase (SPMS) gene promoter activity using the SPMS promoter-β-glucronidase (GUS) gene expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis plants and compared it with that of ACL5 (encoding T-Spm synthase) promoter-GUS expression.


A high concentration of nitrate causes temporal inhibition of lateral root growth by suppressing cell proliferation

Yoko Okushima, Hiroyuki Inamoto, Masaaki Umeda. . . . . . . 413 [PDF]

High nitrate concentration is known to inhibit the growth of lateral roots that have just emerged from the parent root. We found that the expression of mitotic reporter genes was suppressed in emerged lateral root primordia of seedlings grown under high nitrate conditions, suggesting that the cell cycle is arrested, perhaps at G1/S.

Improvement in the ozone tolerance of poplar plants with an antisense DNA for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase

Takeshi Mohri, Satoshi Kogawara, Tomohiro Igasaki, Izumi Yasutani, Mitsuko Aono, Nobuyoshi Nakajima, Kenji Shinohara. . . . . . . 417 [PDF]

An antisense gene of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) was introduced and over-expressed in poplar, resulting in decreased expression of endogenous ACS gene. Although ozone stress induced leaf necrosis in the wild-type poplar, while they only caused such visible mild leaf injury was attenuated in the transgenic poplar.

Technical Note

Bioluminescence spectra of click beetle luciferases in higher plant cells

Rieko Ogura, Naoko Matsuo, Kazuyuki Hiratsuka. . . . . . . 423 [PDF]

To investigate the use of a dual- color luciferase reporter assay (DCRA) for monitoring expression of multiple genes in higher plants, we characterized the bioluminescence and the spectra of click beetle luciferases in planta. Although plant tissues contain pigments and autofluorescent materials, our data suggest that the presence of these do not interfere with gene expression monitoring by DCRA, which is therefore applicable to monitoring the regulation of gene expression in plants.