Organizer’s Overview

Plant Biotechnology required on the earth of the 21st century

Kazuya Yoshida. . . . . . . 209 [PDF]


Plant biotechnology: a key technology in the 21st century

Atsuhiko Shinmyo. . . . . . . 211 [PDF]


On the origin of plants and relations to contemporary cyanobacterial-plant symbioses

Birgitta Bergman, Wei-Wen Zheng, Johan Klint, Liang Ran. . . . . . . 213 [PDF]

The origin and evolution of plant chloroplast is to a large extent still a mystery in plant science although cyanobacteria are the well accepted precursors. Some contemoporary cyanobacteria have retained the capacity to form (a variety) of plant symbioses. This review focus on the plant symbioses, Azolla and Gunnera, chosen as models as they may represent ‘blue-prints’ of the process leading to the origin of plant chloroplasts.

Marine diazotrophic cyanobacteria: Out of the blue

Beatriz Diez, Birgitta Bergman, Rehab El-Shehawy. . . . . . . 221 [PDF]

Cyanobacteria contribute significantly to the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in the oceans. They exhibit a range of morphological treats and physiological adaptations that helped them to successfully proliferate and combat nutrient limitation. In this review we highlight the diversity, adaptation and function of cyanobacteria in the ocean.

A novel cyanobacterial toxin (BMAA) with potential neurodegenerative effects

Sara Jonasson, Johan Eriksson, Lotta Berntzon, Ulla Rasmussen, Birgitta Bergman. . . . . . . 227 [PDF]

Bacterial nitrogen fixation in root nodules requires the protection of nitrogenase from oxygen. Oxygen protection mechanisms in nodules of legumes and actinorhizal plants, and their impact on the antioxidant defense system, are discussed.

Saline Stress

Functions of HKT transporters in sodium transport in roots and in protecting leaves from salinity stress

Tomoaki Horie, Mitsuo Sugawara, Kiyotaka Okunou, Hideki Nakayama, Julian I. Schroeder, Atsuhiko Shinmyo, Kazuya Yoshida. . . . . . . 233 [PDF]

The HKT-type transporter/channel is one of the best characterized Na+ permeable membrane proteins in plants. Here we review findings on the HKT-type transporters/channels, mainly focusing on physiological roles of the membrane protein family in plants.

Expression of OsHAK genes encoding potassium ion transporters in rice

Tomoyuki Okada, Hideki Nakayama, Atsuhiko Shinmyo, Kazuya Yoshida. . . . . . . 241 [PDF]

The KT/HAK/KUP family is a major K+ transporter family present in bacteria, fungi and plants. Mode of expression of seventeen OsHAK genes in rice root under stress condition of potassium starvation and salt stress is reported.

Cellular traits for sodium tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Md Abdul Kader, Sylvia Lindberg. . . . . . . 247 [PDF]

Under high external Na+ salt-tolerant cultivars of rice are able to maintain a low cytosolic Na+/K+ ratio by restricting the uptake of Na+ (through down-regulating some Na+-transporters) and increasing the uptake of K+ (through inducing some K+ transporters) into the cytosol, and by a fast compartmentalization of Na+ into the vacuole (by the induction of the tonoplast Na+/H+– antiporter).

Diverse Stresses

Wild plant resources for studying molecular mechanisms of drought/strong light stress tolerance

Kinya Akashi, Kazuya Yoshimura, Yoshihiko Nanasato, Kentaro Takahara, Yuri Munekage, Akiho Yokota. . . . . . . 257 [PDF]

Wild plants found in the arid zones are equipped with mechanisms for either avoiding or tolerating drought. Recent molecular studies have revealed unique features of their resistance mechanisms, which are markedly different from those found in the model and/or domesticated crop plants.

Cutting the Gordian knot: taking a stab at corky root rot of tomato

Sophia K. Ekengren. . . . . . . 265 [PDF]

Novel insights and ongoing research about the tomato disease, corky root rot and the causal agent the soil-borne fungi, Pyrenochaeta lycopersici.

Endoplasmic reticulum stress response and regulated intramembrane proteolysis in plants

Hiromi Tajima, Yuji Iwata, Nozomu Koizumi. . . . . . . 271 [PDF]

Transcription factors controlled by regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) have been reported to be involved in the signaling pathway of in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. This article documents recent advance of ER stress response and RIP in plants.


Genetic and epigenetic regulation of flowering in rice

Reina Komiya, Ko Shimamoto. . . . . . . 279 [PDF]

Plants integrate endogenous and environmental signals to ensure that the floral transition occurs at the appropriate time. We review the molecular mechanisms that control flowering in rice, particular with respect to the FT-like gene family (mobile signal, florigen).

Molecular mechanisms of RuBisCO biosynthesis in higher plants

Kenji Nishimura, Taro Ogawa, Hiroki Ashida, Akiho Yokota. . . . . . . 285 [PDF]

The CO2 fixing enzyme RuBisCO comprises as much as 50% of leaf soluble proteins in higher plants. In this review, we provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms of RuBisCO biosynthesis in higher plants and discuss future prospects in this study.


Nodules and oxygen

Katharina Pawlowski. . . . . . . 291 [PDF]

Bacterial nitrogen fixation in root nodules requires the protection of nitrogenase from oxygen. Oxygen protection mechanisms in nodules of legumes and actinorhizal plants, and their impact on the antioxidant defense system, are discussed.

Chitinases in root nodules

Patricia Santos, Ana Fortunato, Ana Ribeiro, Katharina Pawlowski. . . . . . . 299 [PDF]

Plant chitinases are known to be involved in rhizobia/legume and in actinorhizal symbioses. Our phylogenetic analysis shows that conserved class I- and class III-chitinases have been recruited in both interactions. A role of chitinases in the control of microbial signaling is unlikely in actinorhizal symbioses. Alternative roles of chitinases are discussed.


Tree biotechnology of Tropical Acacia

Toshiaki Umezawa, Shiro Suzuki, Daisuke Shibata. . . . . . . 309 [PDF]

To establish a sustainable society, forest biomass plays an important role. Therefore it is critically important to establish systems for sustainable production of forest biomass, especially tropical forest resources. In this review, the current status of the biotechnology of tropical Acacia is outlined.

A survey of cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants

Laurence Bessueille, Vincent Bulone. . . . . . . 315 [PDF]

In addition to being used in numerous applications, cellulose plays a central role in plant development and its biosynthesis represents one of the most important biochemical processes in plant biology. This review summarizes the recent progress made in the area of cellulose biosynthesis and the major unanswered questions related to this essential process.